Views: 5 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-11-29 Origin: Site
What are the 7 most promising composite materials?
We are in an era of rapid change, rapid development of science and technology, the pace of replacement of new material technology is getting faster and faster. A single material has been difficult to meet the human requirements for various comprehensive indicators, and the composite of materials has become an inevitable trend. Composite materials are booming under such a trend, the market size is growing rapidly, at the same time, the environmental friendly characteristics of materials such as green, low-carbon, high performance, renewable recycling are gradually paid attention to. So, which materials are in the minds of industry professionals with development potential?(CFRTP)
1. High-performance carbon fiber and its composite materials
Carbon fiber as the "king of lightweight", its density is less than 1/4 of steel, strength is 5-7 times that of steel, and has high temperature resistance, friction resistance, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The main use of carbon fiber is as a reinforcement material and resin, metal, ceramics and carbon composite, manufacturing advanced composite materials. The specific strength and modulus of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites are the highest among existing engineering materials.
Carbon fiber is only 5 microns in diameter, equivalent to a human hair 10 to 12 times, but the strength of aluminum alloy more than four times. Compared with aluminum alloy structural parts, the weight reduction effect of carbon fiber composite materials can reach 20%-40%. Compared with steel metal parts, the weight reduction effect of carbon fiber composite materials can reach 60%-80%.
2. High performance para-aramid fiber and its composite materials
Para-aramid fiber is an extremely important strategic substance, its strength is 5 to 6 times that of steel wire, the specific modulus is 2 to 3 times that of steel or glass fiber, the toughness is 2 times that of steel, and the weight is only about 1/5 of steel.
It can be used as a load bearing structural material, but also as a thermal, anti-ablative, anti-corrosion functional material, is currently the world's largest production scale of high modulus, high strength, high temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance, light weight and other excellent performance of organic fibers.
High performance para aramid fiber and its composite materials are mainly used in fiber reinforcement, automotive industry, aerospace, electrical equipment, rail transit, military protection, sporting goods, new energy and other fields. In recent years, the research and development of para-aramid fiber in China has been fruitful, and the technical barriers have been continuously broken.
3. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber and its composite materials
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber and carbon fiber, aramid fiber and known as the world's three major high-tech fibers, is currently the world's highest specific strength and specific modulus of the fiber, its molecular weight in 1 million to 5 million polyethylene spun fibers.
In view of its light weight, high strength and high specific energy absorption characteristics, it has gradually replaced aramid fiber and become the preferred fiber in the field of individual bulletproof.
4. Carbon/carbon composites
Carbon/carbon composite is a carbon matrix composite reinforced by carbon fiber and its fabrics, which has outstanding characteristics such as light weight, good ablative resistance, good thermal shock resistance, high temperature strength and strong designability, and is considered to be one of the most promising high temperature materials.
Due to its unique properties, carbon/carbon composite materials have been widely used in aerospace, automotive industry, medical and other fields, such as rocket engine nozzles and their throat liners, space shuttle end caps and wing leading edge thermal protection systems, aircraft brake discs, etc.
5. Basalt fiber reinforced composite materials
Basalt fibers have high strength and stiffness, are resistant to high temperature and corrosion, and are also very light. Compared with other composite materials, it is degradable, non-toxic, and pollution-free to the environment, and is known as the "green industrial material" in the 21st century. It has high application value in aerospace, military industry, road traffic and other fields.
6. Carbon/ceramic composites
Carbon/ceramic composite material has the advantages of high strength, high modulus, high hardness, impact resistance, oxidation resistance, high temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance, small thermal expansion coefficient, light specific gravity, etc., it is a new high temperature structural material and functional material that can meet the use of 1650℃. At the same time, carbon/ceramic composites also overcome the shortcomings of general ceramic materials such as brittleness and single function, and are recognized as one of the ideal high-temperature structural materials and friction materials.
Carbon/ceramic composite materials are widely used in aerospace, national defense, energy, automobiles, high-speed trains and other fields. It is recognized as the most ideal high-temperature structural material and friction material in the new generation of aircraft and automobile brake materials, and is also known as the highest level of brake material performance at present.
7. Metal matrix composite materials
Metal matrix composite is an important branch of modern composite materials, which is composed of metal and its alloy as matrix and artificially combined with one or several metal or non-metal reinforcement.
It is characterized by high transverse and shear strength in mechanics, good comprehensive mechanical properties such as toughness and fatigue, and has the advantages of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, small coefficient of thermal expansion, good damping, non-moisture absorption, non-aging and no pollution. Because of its excellent performance, it is widely used in aerospace, automotive, electronics and machine manufacturing industries.
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