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Application of carbon fiber composite materials in the field of medical equipment

Views: 56     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-04-07      Origin: Site

Application of carbon fiber composite materials in the field of medical equipment

Carbon fiber composite materials are used more and more widely in the fields of diagnosis and treatment, health care and related medical equipment. With the gradual increase in the medical market demand, related carbon fiber medical materials are also expanding and innovating in application approaches and forms.

The research of medical carbon fiber materials first began in the 1960s, when it was discovered that carbon fiber materials have excellent anticoagulant properties in the research of anticoagulant materials for artificial blood vessels. After 1970, Bokros proposed to use carbon fiber materials as biomedical devices. According to modern scientific research, carbon fiber materials have good biocompatibility, low irritation to biological tissues, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, small specific gravity, elastic modulus similar to human bone, etc., making it a fourth-generation implant material Potential advantages.

Application advantages of carbon fiber composite materials in the medical field

1. Anisotropy and designability

Carbon fiber composite materials are anisotropic materials with different properties along the fiber direction and perpendicular to the fiber direction, which brings a lot of freedom to the design. The product can be changed by changing the layup method (such as layup angle, layup sequence). The characteristics of elasticity and strength meet the specific application requirements. However, medical equipment components often act on different parts of the human body, and the specific performance requirements of different components are different.

2. High X-ray transmittance

The X-ray transmittance is related to the element composition, atomic number, density, and thickness of the penetrated material. The main elements that make up the carbon fiber composite material are C, H, and O. The atomic number is small, and the X-ray mass absorption coefficient is much lower than— General material. The X-ray transmittance of the 1mm thick aluminum plate and carbon fiber composite material plate is 78% and 96%, respectively, the scattering and absorption consumption of the aluminum plate is 22%, and the carbon fiber plate is only 4%.

3. Good fatigue resistance

Carbon fiber composite materials contain countless fiber/resin interfaces. When cracks are generated due to excessive external force, these interfaces can effectively prevent the cracks from expanding further and delay the occurrence of fatigue damage. Medical equipment is repeatedly used every day, and the good fatigue resistance of carbon fiber composite materials ensures the service life of the equipment.

In the field of medical devices, carbon fiber composite materials are used to manufacture mobile platforms for X-ray inspection instruments by taking advantage of their X-ray total transmittance; taking advantage of the excellent mechanical properties of CFRP, it is used to manufacture medical devices for orthopedics and organ transplantation. And the manufacture of rehabilitation products such as prostheses and orthotics.

Used for CT bed board, X-ray inspection and other equipment and auxiliary equipment

This category is currently the most widely used and most widely used carbon fiber medical case in China. The more representative ones are X-ray, CT and B-ultrasound examination table panels, diagnostic bed headrests, high-definition DR flat panel detector panels, and brackets.

Medical CT bedboards mostly use insulated electric panels, but their ray transmittance is low, mechanical properties are poor, and imaging clarity is poor. The absorption rate and scattering rate of carbon fiber composite materials are much smaller than that of carbon fiber composite materials. In diagnosis, the X-ray dose can be reduced accordingly, the power of the X-ray machine can be reduced, the service life of the instrument can be prolonged, and the electric energy can be saved.

More importantly, because of the excellent X-ray transmission performance of carbon fiber composite material, it allows rays to irradiate the bed at any angle without refraction, and only a small dose of rays can be used to obtain a clear image, thereby reducing the risk to the patient. And the hazards of medical staff.

Earlier, at the Japan Medical Device Design and Manufacturing Exhibition, Teijin Group displayed its carbon fiber composite materials in the medical field-carbon fiber stents for brain surgery.

Carbon fiber for artificial bones and artificial joints

At present, carbon fiber composite materials have been widely used in bone internal fixation plates, bone fillers, hip stems, artificial tooth roots, skull repair materials and artificial heart materials. The bending strength of human bones is about 100Mpa, the bending modulus is about 7-20Gpa, the tensile strength is about 150Mpa, and the tensile modulus is about 20Gpa. The flexural strength of carbon fiber composite materials is about 89Mpa, the flexural modulus is 27Gpa, the tensile strength is about 43Mpa, and the tensile modulus is about 24Gpa, which is close to or surpassing the strength of human bones.

At present, some companies have researched the use of carbon fiber composite materials to make artificial bones and joints. The bending strength of this artificial bone is closer to real human bones than artificial bones made of other biological materials. This is of great significance to orthopedic medicine. The abrasion resistance of the artificial joint made of it at the movable joint is also higher than that of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and metal products.

Invibio is a well-known supplier of medical devices. The chopped carbon fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) developed by Invibio has excellent mechanical strength and tensile creep resistance, and can bear the load required by bones, blood and human tissues. , Good compatibility with the human body. The bending strength of this kind of artificial bone is closer to real human bone than the artificial bone made of other biological materials, which is of great significance to orthopedic medicine. The abrasion resistance of the artificial joint made of it at the movable joint is also higher than that of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and metal products.

Another company has developed continuous carbon fiber or felt-reinforced plastic for bone repair. The resin matrix is polymethyl methacrylate, and the mass fraction of carbon fiber is 20%-60%. Because the material is light in weight, has no interference with MRI examination, and has good biocompatibility, it has no adverse reactions to biological tissues, blood and cerebrospinal fluid, etc., and no rejection reactions when implanted in organisms, so it is suitable for use as Materials for fixation of fractures or materials for internal fixation of fractures or bone repair.

Tooth restoration

In European and American countries, non-metallic restoration-prefabricated post systems are increasingly being used in clinics, and are gradually considered to be an effective alternative to traditional metal post-core systems to repair the residual roots and crowns of teeth. Studies on the physical and chemical properties and biological properties of carbon fiber posts have shown that carbon fiber posts have mechanical properties that are more compatible with tooth structure, and its elastic modulus similar to dentin can make stresses more evenly distributed along the post, which is beneficial for protection Tooth root; at the same time, it has many advantages such as good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, easy removal, and convenience for secondary restoration.

Carbon fiber prosthesis

The connecting part of the prosthesis and the human body is called the receiving cavity, which mainly wraps the residual limb and transmits power. This part has high load-bearing requirements and should not be too heavy. Carbon fiber materials can also be used as materials for this part. The part that contains the residual limbs can be made of polyethylene board, and the support body can be made of carbon fiber to make the frame structure to realize easy support and transfer of force.

The linkage of the ankle and foot of the human body plays a key role in the balance and support of the body. The ankle joint made of carbon fiber can realize the jumping function of the human body. In addition, the joint part of the ankle and the calf prosthesis can also be realized by carbon fiber. The overall product produced is very exquisite. , It also performed well in terms of damage safety.

Carbon fiber wheelchair

The density of carbon fiber is only 1.7g/cm3, and accessories of the same specification are more than half lighter than aluminum alloy materials, but the strength is much greater. In addition, carbon fiber also has strong corrosion resistance, and a considerable proportion of wheelchair patients face Incontinence of urine and feces and frequent contact with injection liquids and other problems, in this case, the accessories of carbon fiber composite materials show durability that is difficult to match with ordinary metal materials.

At present, carbon fiber composite materials are mainly used in accessories such as armrests, arm rests, foot rests, leg rests, backrests, skirt boards, and frame tubes. Most of these accessories can be adjusted in height. Carbon fiber composite materials are easy to assemble with the wheelchair as a whole through mechanical connections. The most important thing is that after the use of carbon fiber composite materials for these accessories, the overall weight of the wheelchair has been significantly reduced, and as a component with a high frequency of use, it has also become more durable.

Carbon fiber composite materials have excellent performance and have been widely used in civilian daily life. After decades of application verification, they are safe and reliable for the environment and human health.

With the continuous advancement of medical technology, medical equipment is constantly innovating and developing. The investment and application of carbon fiber in medical equipment represents a new trend and direction, and the future is bound to usher in a broader application prospect.

Article source: Fast Technology

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